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Current Affairs


22nd December 2023


1)  Overview of PM Narendra Modi’s Visit to Gujarat & Uttar Pradesh – 17&  18th December 2023

 Prime Minister(PM) Narendra Modi visited Surat, Gujarat and Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh(UP) from 17th to 18th December 2023.
During his 2 day visit, he inaugurated and laid the foundation stones for several development projects in both Gujarat and UP.
The development projects include,

·         Inauguration of Surat Diamond Bourse and new terminal building at Surat Airport in Surat, Gujarat.

·         laid foundation stone and dedicated projects worth Rs 19,150 crore in Varanasi, UP.

·         He participated in the Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra and inaugurated Kashi Tamil Sangamam 2023 in Varanasi, UP.

·         He also flagged off the 2nd Vande Bharat Express Train connecting Varanasi-New Delhi.


2)  MoD signed Rs 1,614.89 crore contract with MDL for Procurement of Six NGOPVS 

On 20th December 2023, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) signed a contract worth Rs.1614.89 crore with Mazagon Dockyard Shipbuilders Limited (MDL – functioning under MoD) for the procurement of six Next Generation Offshore Patrol Vessels (NGOPVS) for the Indian Coast Guard (ICG).
About the Contract:
i.The contract was made under the Buy (Indian-Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured (IDDM)) category.
ii.The six multi-role state-of-the-art vessels will be delivered in sixty-six months (5.5 years) to ICG.
iii.Four of these vessels would replace the existing ageing OPVs and the remaining two would augment the ICG fleet.
CSL &  Defence Ministry Signed Rs 488.25 cr Contract for Ship Repairs
Ministry of Defence (MoD) entered into a contract with Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) worth Rs 488.25 crore for the repair and maintenance of equipment and systems onboard naval vessels.

·         CSL is a Miniratna Company under the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW).

About Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd (MDL):
Chairman & Managing Director(MD) – Sanjeev Singhal
Headquarters – Mumbai, Maharashtra
Established in – 1934
Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL):
Chairman and Managing Director(MD) – Madhu S Nair
Headquarters – Cochin, Kerala
Established in – 1972

3)  Union Minister Pralhad Joshi Launched NGDR portal & Roadshow on Critical Minerals

On 19th December 2023, Union Minister Pralhad Joshi, Ministry of Mines (MoM), launched the National Geoscience Data Repository (NGDR) Portal (https://geodataindia.gov.in/login), and the Roadshow on Critical Minerals in New Delhi, Delhi.
Key People: Raosaheb Patil Danve, Minister of State for Mines; V.L. Kantha Rao, Secretary, MoM were present during the event.
About NGDR:
i.NGDR is a flagship initiative of the MoM created as a part of the National Mineral Exploration Policy (NMEP), 2016.

·         The initiative aims to increase the investment attractiveness of the mining sector in India.

ii.It is spearheaded by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the Bhaskarachaya Institute of Space Applications and Geoinformatics (BISAG-N).
iii.This enables everyone to access critical geoscience data and empowers stakeholders in various industries and academia with access to invaluable resources.
About the NGDR portal:
i.NGDR portal is a state-of-the-art, user-friendly, interoperable platform that enables users to access and download geoscience data.
ii.At present, 35 map services like geological, geochemical and  geophysical, data layers have been incorporated with the NGDR portal
iii.This will help in targeting potential mineral zones across India.
Note: Out of the total 32 lakh square(sq) kilometres (km) area of India, the NGDR portal makes available detailed geospatial data for each sqkm of 20 lakh sqkm area.

·         Mineral Exploration Reporting Template(MERT) enables geoscientific stakeholders to submit their data in the NGDR portal in a standard reporting template.

·         state-of-the-art analytical tools to interpret and extract valuable insights from complex geospatial data.

v.Benefit:  This will benefit geoscience agencies such as GSI, Mineral Exploration and Consultancy Ltd. (MECL), State Departments of Mining and Geology, private agencies, and other stakeholders of India.
Roadshow on Critical Minerals:
Objective: To guide the potential bidders regarding the auction process of critical & strategic mineral blocks.
i.The roadshow featured a presentation on prevalent mineral policies and the reform of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act (MMDR Act) and rules thereunder for enabling the Government to auction critical & strategic mineral blocks.
ii.Details of Exploration Licence, a provision in the MMDR Act were also presented during the event.

·         Exploration Licence is a provision for the grant of a mineral concession for undertaking the full range of exploration starting from reconnaissance to prospecting operations.

About Geological Survey of India (GSI):
Director General– Janardan Prasad
Headquarters– Kolkata, West Bengal
Established in– 1851

4)  1st Foundation Day of AIIA Goa: Union Minister Sarbananda Sonowal Released Commemorative Stamp

Union Minister Sarbananda Sonowal, Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) has released a commemorative postal stamp to mark the first foundation day of the All India Institute of Ayurveda (AIIA), Goa which was inaugurated on 11th December 2022. 

·         AIIA is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Ayush which aims to bring synergy between the traditional wisdom of Ayurveda and modern tools and technology.

·         The event was jointly organized by the AIIA and India Post at the Transport Bhawan in New Delhi, Delhi.

Note: During the event, AIIA and Andrew Yule & Company Limited (AYCL), headquartered in Kolkatta, West Bengal, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to collaborate on efforts to understand the benefits of tea.
Key People: Minister of State (MoS) Munjapara Mahendrabhai, Minister of Ayush and Vaidya Rajesh Kotecha, Secretary to Ministry of Ayush, graced the event.



5)  IUCN Released Updated Red List of Threatened Species at COP28

 On 11th December 2023, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) released the updated IUCN Red List of Threatened Species during the 28th Conference of the Parties(COP 28) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at Dubai, the United Arab Emirates(UAE).

·         The updated IUCN list includes 157,190 species, of which 44,016 are threatened with extinction.

·         This also completes the first comprehensive assessment of the world’s freshwater fish species, which states around 25% (3,086 out of 14,898 assessed species) are at risk of extinction.

About International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN): 
Director General– Dr Grethel Aguilar
President– Razan Al Mubarak
Headquarters– Gland, Switzerland
Establishment– 1948


6)  Razorpay, Cashfree along with 4 Other Firms Gets RBI Nod to Operate as Pas

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has lifted the ban on Razorpay Software Private Limited and Cashfree Payments India Private Limited to act as a payment aggregators (PAs) and gave final authorization to them along with 4 other firms to onboard new merchants onto their platform for processing online payments.
Other Payment Aggregators to Receive RBI nod:
i.Neobank ‘Open Financial Technologies Private Limited’ was also granted final approval to function as a PA.

·         However, they received in-principle approval for the PA licence from RBI in 2022.

ii.Nehat Tech Solutions Private Limited (EnKash) has secured regulatory approval RBI to operate as a payment aggregator under the brand name Olympus.
iii.Few other firms like Google India Digital Services Private Limited (Google Pay) and Paymate India Private Limited also received approval from RBI.
The authorisation was granted under Section 7 of Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007.
About the ban:
i.In December 2022, RBI has imposed curbs on RazorPay and Cashfree Payments for on-boarding new merchants till they get the final Payment Aggregator (PA) licence.
ii.These entities need to complete the migration of existing merchants to the new platform and submit a progress report with RBI.
iii.They also require making some systematic upgrades which involve migrations to an escrow account from a nodal account, integrating RBI’s reporting system so that periodic reports can be submitted on transactions undertaken and merchants brought into the formal system, among others.
Additional Info:

·         PayTM Payments Services Limited and PayU Payments Private Limited also received ban in 2022 to act as PA still continue to be under embargo.

·         Juspay Technologies Private Limited has reached the second stage of approval as a PA, however, it cannot start operations without the final approval from the RBI.

About Payment Aggregators:
i.Online payment aggregators are companies that facilitate online payments by acting as intermediaries between the customer and the merchant.
ii.RBI introduced Guidelines for Regulating PAs and Payment Gateway in 2020.
iii.As of December 20, 2023 there are 38 Online Payment Aggregators in India.


7)  World Bank Sets up Task Force to Study  Recommendations of  IEG on MDBs Reforms

The World Bank has set up a task force to study the recommendations to strengthen multilateral development banks (MDBs) made by an Independent Experts Group (IEG) constituted during India’s G20 (Group 20) chairmanship. This was revealed by World Bank President Ajay Banga during a meeting with Indian Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on December 20, 2023, in New Delhi, Delhi.

·         The decision to set up a task force comes after the World Bank signed an agreement with nine MDBs to strengthen its collaboration with them in October 2023.

About the Independent Experts Group(IEG): 
i.The Independent Expert Group (IEG) was appointed under the India G20 Presidency to provide recommendations for strengthening (MDBs)and has two co-convenors: Professor Emeritus of Harvard University Lawrence Summers and former Chairperson of the 15th Finance Commission NK Singh.
ii.IEG  has recommended a triple agenda to reform and harness the potential of MDBs in its
iii.The triple agenda would be:

·         Triple annual sustainable lending levels to USD 390 billion per year by 2030.

·         Adopt a triple mandate of eliminating extreme poverty, boosting shared prosperity, and contributing to global public goods (GPGs).

·         Creating a third funding mechanism that would permit flexible and innovative arrangements for purposefully engaging with investors willing to support elements of the MDB agenda.

India held the Presidency of the G20 from December 1, 2022, to November 30, 2023.
About the World Bank Agreement with Nine MDBs:  
i. As per the agreement, the World Bank will work with MDBs to fast-track solutions that can change the lives of people living in poverty in developing countries.
ii.The agreement focused on the following five key areas to boost collaboration;

·         Scaling up financing capacity

·         Boosting collective efforts on climate

·         Enhancing country-level collaboration

·         Strengthening co-financing

·         Catalyzing private sector engagement

iii. The Nine MDBs with which world bank signed an agreement are the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank(ADB), the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank(AIIB), the Council of Europe Development Bank(CEB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development(EBRD), the European Investment Bank(EIB), the Inter-American Development Bank(IDB), the Islamic Development Bank(IsDB), and the New Development Bank(NDB).


8)  Bandhan Bank secured mandate to collect revenue on e-GRAS portal from Assam

Bandhan Bank Limited has gained authorisation to collect revenue on electronic-Government Receipt Accounting System (e-GRAS) from the Government of Assam .

·         This will enable the citizens of Assam to make tax and non-tax payments through GRAS.

Key Points:
i.Through Assam e-GRAS portal, people can pay to 70 departments for their services.

·         House tax, Vehicle Registration Tax, Local body tax, Water Bill, Examination fees conducted by Assam Government, Trade License renewal, amongst others, can be paid using this portal.

ii.This will also make transactions easier, paperless, and accessible for the people of Assam
About Assam e-GRAS:
i.Assam e-GRAS (
https://assamegras.gov.in) is an online system that facilitates creation of eChallan and online payment by citizens anywhere, anytime.
ii.GRAS, a web application, provides facility to the citizens, business community to pay taxes and non-tax receipts to the government electronically.
Note: In FY 2022-23, around Rs 16,000 crore was collected through Assam e-GRAS portal.
About Bandhan Bank Limited:
CEO– Chandra Shekhar Ghosh
Headquarters– Kolkata, West Bengal
Tagline–  ‘Aapka Bhala. Sabki Bhalai’, (Your benefit. Everyone’s welfare)
Establishment– 2001



9)  Sukrita Paul Kumar won the 6th Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize for Her book “Salt & Pepper”

Sukrita Paul Kumar, Indian Poet, critic and Translator, was honoured with the 6th Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize (2023) for her book titled “Salt & Pepper: Selected Poems” published by Paperwall Publishing.

·         Indian-American economist, Abhijit Banerjee, the 2018 Nobel Prize laureate (Economics), received the Tagore Prize for Social Achievement 2023.

·         The Award Ceremony was held at the India International Center, IIC, in New Delhi, Delhi.

About Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize:
i.It was founded in 2018 by Copenhagen(Denmark)-based publisher Peter Bundalo, who is also the chair of the Awarding Committee.
ii.It is an annual cultural event founded as a platform for World Peace, Literature, Art, Education, and Human Rights.
Rabindranath Tagore Literature Prize: recognizing literary brilliance;

·         The award is presented to works of Indian authors (residing in India or abroad) in novel, short stories, poetry and drama, originally written in any of Indian official languages and dialects, but translated to English.

·         The award carries a cash prize of USD 10,000 and a handmade brass statuette of Tagore.

TagorePrize for Social Achievement: for outstanding contributions to societal well-being.

·         The award includes a custom-crafted brass statuette of Tagore.

About Sukrita Paul Kumar:
i.She was born and raised in Kenya and has held the Aruna Asaf Ali Chair at the University of Delhi from 2014-16.
ii.She is an Honorary Fellow of the prestigious International Writing Programme, University of Iowa (United States of America), of Cambridge Seminars.
iii.As Director of a UNESCO project on “The Culture of Peace”, she edited “Mapping Memories“, a volume of Urdu short stories from India and Pakistan.
Noted Works:
i.Her notable works include Folds of Silence (1996); Narrating Partition: Texts, Interpretations, Ideas (2004); Speaking for Myself (Co-Editor; 2009); Krishna Sobti: A Counter Archive (2022).
ii.Bilingual Collections: Poems Come Home (with Hindustani translation by Gulzar) and Rowing Together (with Hindi translation by Savita Singh)
i.She received the Grant from Sahitya Akademi in 2010 for a project on narrating women’s lives in Chamba and Bharmou.
ii.In 2012, she received the Tagore Fellowship by the Ministry of Culture for a book project on Cultural Diversity in India.


10)       ISRO Received the 2023 Leif Erikson Lunar Prize for the Chandrayaan-3 Mission

On 19th December 2023, The Exploration Museum in Husavik, Iceland announced the winners of the 9th edition of the Leif Erikson Awards.

·         Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the national space agency of India based in Bengaluru, Karnataka won the 2023 Leif Erikson Lunar Prize for its Chandrayaan-3 mission, the 1st spacecraft to softland near Moon’s south pole.

·         The award recognises ISRO’s efforts in advancing lunar exploration and contributions to understanding celestial mysteries.

Note: Indian Ambassador Balasubramanian Shyam in the Embassy of India in Reykjavik (Iceland), received the prize on behalf of ISRO.
About Chandrayaan-3:
i.Chandrayaan-3, the 3rd lunar exploration mission of India, was launched on 14th July 2023 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh(AP).
ii.Chandrayaan-3 Lander Module successfully landed on the Moon on 23rd August  2023 making India the 4th nation to softland on lunar surface.
iii.The mission consists of a lunar lander named Vikram and a lunar rover named Pragyan.
Click Here to read about Chandrayaan-3 Mission
Other winners of 9th Leif Erikson Awards(2023):
i.Leif Erikson Award is presented to an explorer for a lifetime achievement in exploration.

·         Leif Erikson Award 2023 is awarded to former American astronaut Bill Anders (William Alison Anders) for his iconic “Earthrise” photograph taken during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Apollo 8 mission.

ii.Leif Erikson Young Explorer Award is presented to an explorer under the age of 35 for achievements in exploration.

·         Leif Erikson Young Explorer Award 2023 is awarded to Kellie Gerardi, an American aerospace professional and science communicator, for her contributions to bioastronautics research and spacesuit evaluation.

iii.The Leif Erikson Exploration History Award, is awarded to a person or an organization that has worked to promote and preserve exploration history, or to educate about exploration, science and environmental issues.

·         Leif Erikson Exploration History Award 2023 is awarded to Libby Jackson, British space exploration expert and author, for her work in preserving the history of female astronauts and space professionals.

About Leif Erikson Awards:
i.Leif Erikson Awards, also known as Exploration Awards, is an annual award presented by the Exploration Museum since 2015.
ii.It is named after Leif Erikson, a Norse explorer who is considered as the 1st European to set foot on continental America.
iii.It is awarded for achievements in exploration and for work in the field of exploration history.


11)       Actress Aastha Rawal Crowned With Miss Continental International 2023

Indian Actress Aastha Rawal has won the 5th edition of the Miss Continental International Award (2023) pageant held in India for the very first time.

·         Aastha Rawal was also honoured with the titles of “Best in Interview” and “Best in Swimwear”.

·         The selection process included online submission of interviews, photographs, and personal snippets.

·         The competition included participants from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Bhutan, and other Asian countries.



12)       Crown Prince Sheikh Meshal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Sworn in as 17th Emir of Kuwait

Sheikh Meshal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah officially assumed the role of Emir of Kuwait, taking the constitutional oath in a ceremony held before the Kuwaiti National Assembly. He became the 17th ruler of Kuwait, the oil-rich Gulf state.

·         He succeeded the late Emir Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, who passed away at the age of 86 on 16 December 2023. He served as the Emir of Kuwait for 3 years (2020-2023).

Note: The Emir of Kuwait is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces and the Crown Prince is the deputy commander.
About Sheikh Meshal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah:
i.He was born in 1940 and is the half-brother of the late Sheikh Nawaf and the 7th son of the late Ruler of Kuwait, the late Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, who ruled Kuwait from 1921 to 1950.
ii.He was Kuwait’s Crown Prince since October 2020 following the death of Emir Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Sabah.

·         At the age of 80, he became the oldest Crown Prince in the world.

iii.Sheikh Meshal has been the de-facto ruler of Kuwait since 2021 when his half-brother, Sheikh Nawaf, handed over most of his key constitutional duties.
iv.He joined the Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior (MOI) and served as the head of MOI’s intelligence and state security service from 1967 to 1980.
v.From 2004 – 2020 he was served as the deputy chief of the Kuwait National Guard (KNG) with the rank of a minister.
vi.He is the founder and the honorary president of the Kuwait Amateur Radio Society.
vii.He was named the honorary president of the Kuwait Aircraft Engineer Pilots Association in 1973 and of the Diwan of Poets in 1977.


13)       Vita Dani becomes 1st Indian to be Inducted as ITTF governing Board Member

Sports philanthropist and entrepreneur Vita Dani has become the first Indian to be inducted as a governing board member to the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) Foundation.

·         Vita Dani along with Jalaj Dani co-founded Dani Foundation.

·         She is also the co-owner of the Chennaiyin Football Club (CFC), along with Abhishek Bachchan and Mahendra Singh (MS) Dhoni.

·         As the Chairperson of Ultimate Table Tennis (UTT), she has been reshaping the landscape of Table Tennis, ensuring accessibility across all segments of society, and orchestrating multiple tournaments spanning 25 states in India.

ITTF Foundation:
ITTF Foundation Governing Board, includes Petra Sörling( ITTF President); Steve Dainton(ITTF Group CEO ), HRH Princess Zeina Rashid of Jordan, Bruce Burton, Stefano Bosi, and ITTF Foundation Director Leandro Olvech.
ITTF Foundation established in 2019 is headquartered in Leipzig, Germany



14)       IndusInd Bank Exits Nippon Life India Asset, Sells Shares Worth Rs 795.27 cr

IndusInd Bank Limited has sold its entire 2.86% of paid-up share capital in Nippon Life India Asset Management Limited (NAM-INDIA) (Formerly Reliance Life Asset Management Limited) for Rs 795.27 crore through open market transactions.

·         IndusInd Bank exits NAM-India by offloading 1,78,57,355 shares at an average price of Rs 445.35 per share.

·         SBI Funds Management Limited, ICICI Prudential Asset Management Company Limited, Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Limited, Société Générale S.A. and Morgan Stanley Asia (Singapore) Pte were among the buyers.

About Nippon Life India Asset Management Limited (NAM-INDIA):
Executive Director & Chief Executive Officer (CEO) – Sundeep Sikka
Headquarters – Mumbai, Maharashtra
Established in – 2020



15)       TBAL delivers 250th Fuselage for AH-64 Apache Helicopter

Tata Boeing Aerospace Limited (TBAL) has delivered the 250th fuselage for AH-64E Apache Combat helicopters which was manufactured at TBAL’s state-of-the-art facility in Hyderabad, Telangana.
About the Fuselage:
i.The fuselages are the primary body of an aircraft or helicopter.
ii.The manufactured fuselages are dispatched to Arizona in the United States of America (USA) for final assembly.
iii.After assembly, the Apaches are supplied to customers around the world, including the USA Army and the Indian Army.
iv.TBAL serve as a single global source for fuselages for AH-64E Apache helicopters.
v.More than 90% of the parts used in the Apache aero structure assemblies are manufactured by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) in India.
AH-64E Apache Combat helicopters:
i.The Apache attack helicopter is regarded as the world’s most advanced and deadliest attack helicopter, with over 1,280 AH-64E Apaches in operation worldwide.
ii.The helicopter can deliver a variety of weapons, including air-to-ground Hellfire missiles, 70 mm Hydra rockets and air-to-air Stinger missiles.
iii.It also carries one 30 mm chain gun (with 1200 rounds), fire control radar (for 360° coverage) and nose-mounted sensor suite (for target acquisition) and night vision systems.
Indian Army and AH-64E:
i.Government of India (GoI) inked a contract with TBAL in 2020 for procurement of six new Apache helicopters for the Indian Army at a cost of around USD 800 million. 
ii.The first Apache will be delivered in February 2024, whereas the remaining five helicopters are set to be delivered by April 2024.
Note: The Indian Air Force (IAF) has a fleet of 22 AH-64E Apache attack helicopters.
About Tata Boeing Aerospace Limited (TBAL):
i.TBAL is a Joint Venture(JV) between Tata Advanced Systems Limited (TASL) and American aircraft manufacturer, Boeing Company.
ii.The facility also produces vertical spare boxes and secondary structures for this multi-role combat helicopter.
Headquarters – Hyderabad, Telangana
Established in – 2016



16)       Padma Bhushan Awardee and Women’s Rights Activist Dr. V. Mohini Giri Passed Away

Padma Bhushan awardee Dr. V. Mohini Giri, an Indian women’s rights activist and the former Chair of the National Commission for Women (NCW) passed away at the age of 86. She was born on 15 January 1938, in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
i.She received the Rosalie Wolf Memorial Award from the International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (INPEA) in 2014, for a lifetime of demonstrated dedication in the service of “elder abuse.”
ii.She was honoured with the Padma Bhushan in 2007 for Social Work.
iii.She was also awarded with Lifetime Achievement Award for building a society for all ages by nongovernmental organization (NGO) Committee on Ageing, United Nations in 2011.
About Dr. V. Mohini Giri:
i.Dr. V. Mohini Giri was the daughter-in-law of former President V. V. Giri.
ii.She founded the War Widows Association in 1972 following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and served as a Founder /President of the War Widow Association since 1971.
iii.She was the Chairperson of the Guild of Service, New Delhi(Delhi)–based social service organization, since 1979.
iv.She served as Chair of the NCW (1995-1998) and Chair of the Delhi State Social Welfare Advisory Board (1987-1990).
v.She also served as Founder Trustee of the Women’s Initiative for Peace in South Asia since 2000.
vi.She was also a board member of The Hunger Project, an international charity, and retired from the Global Board after serving for 16 years, since 2000.
vii.She was a trustee of Navdanya; trustee of Justice Sunanda Bhandare Foundation; and trustee of the Foundation for Academic Excellence and Access (FAEA).
Her noteworthy publications include:
Emancipation and Empowerment of Women (1998); Kanya: Exploitation of Little Angels (1999); Living Death: Trauma of Widowhood in India (2002); Deprived Devis: Women’s Unequal Status In Society (2006).



17)       First-Ever UN World Basketball Day – 21st December 2023

The first-ever United Nations (UNWorld Basketball Day was observed across the globe on 21 December 2023 to recognise the pivotal role of sports (including sports for disabled persons), especially basketball, in fostering human rights, peace, development, gender equality, and the empowerment of women and girls.

·         Basketball has become the 1st team sport to be honoured with an UN-recognised international day.

On August 25, 2023, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted resolution A/RES/77/324 and proclaimed the 21 December as World Basketball Day.
Why December 21?
On 21st December 1891, Basketball was played for the first time at the International YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, the United States of America(USA).

·         Basketball was developed by Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian physical education instructor.





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